XML Annotation Reference

One of the output formats available in the DES is XML. DES will always generate a well-formed XML document for any input text.

Certain element are further qualified using attributes. Additionally certain elements may have a context attribute, which, if present, indicates the 'thing' that this mention is referring to. As an example:


refers to the concept that is the Armed Forces Act 1996.

In addition most element have a rule attribute, which indicates the logic that added the annotation. Those that do not will tend to be nested within an element that does and been added as part of that rule.

The following table is a list of all the annotations that the DES generates:

Element Name Description
Abbrev An abbreviation of a term
Activity A physical activity, e.g. cycling or rowing
AdminArea A geographical administration area, e.g. 'London Borough of Greenwich'
Animal A type of animal (note this is not fully implemented)
Award An award of medal, e.g. 'George Cross'
BuildingPart A part of a building, e.g. '2nd Floor'
Company A company, e.g. 'The Stationery Office Limited' or IBM
Constituency A parliamentary constituency, e.g. 'Barrow and Furness'
Continent A continent, e.g. Asia
Country A country, e.g. France
County A cermonial county, e.g. Norfolk
Date A date, e.g. 12 March 2004
DateRange A date range, e.g. April 1-30
Day A day, e.g. Friday
Emirate An emirate, e.g. Ras al-Khaimah
Event An event, e.g. the 'World Cup'
Facility A manmade structure that perfoms some function, e.g. a zoo, a cathedral or an airport
Feature A natural feature, e.g. a marsh or a forest
FirstName A person's first name, e.g. Fred
Honorific An honorific, e.g. Mr, Miss, Dr
Honour An honour, e.g. CBE, OBE
Landmark A landmark, e.g. the 'Angel of the North' or Stonehenge
Legislation An item of legislation, e.g. 'Finance Act 2006' or 'The Lisbon Treaty'
Link An internet link, e.g. an email address or a web link
Location A geographical area not described by one of the other geo-location elements, e.g. 'East Anglia' or 'Nova Scotia'
Medical A medical term (note not fully implemented)
MiddleInitials The middle initials of a person's name
MiddleNames A person's middle names
Month A month, e.g. February
Nationality A nationality, e.g. British
NotableDay A celebrated day, e.g. 'Boxing Day'
Number A number in textual format, e.g. twenty-three or 'six million'
Occupation An occupation, e.g. 'nurse' or 'policeman'
Organisation Organisations such as hospital, government departments, etc
Paragraph A paragraph
Pedigree A person's pedigree, e.g. XVI in 'Pope Benedict XVI'
Period An historical period of time, e.g. '18th Century'
Person A person
Place A city, town, village, etc, e.g. London or Cromer
Position A person's role, e.g. 'Managing Director' or 'Prime Minister'
Postcode A UK postcode
Product A thing you can buy, e.g. 'Ford Fiesta'
Publication A publication, e.g. 'The Sunday Times' or 'The Guardian'
Qualification A qualification, e.g. 'FRCS'
Quote A quote
Street A street, e.g. 'Acacia Avenue' or 'Church Street'
Surname A person's surname, e.g. Smith
Telephone A telephone number
Term A term that has qualified as an abbreviation
Time A time, e.g. '8.30 am'
Value A numerical quantity of a particular unit, e.g. '60mph' or '42 centimetres'
Vehicle A thing such as an individual ship, plane, train, etc, e.g. HMS Queen Elizabeth